Andrew Miller was born in 1836 in Germany, and later immigrated to the United States. He enlisted in the U.S. Marine Corps on August 21, 1854, in Washington, D.C., and served aboard the steam sloop USS Richmond during the U.S. Civil War. He was awarded the Medal of Honor on December 31, 1864, for his actions aboard the USS Richmond during the Battle of Mobile Bay on August 5, 1864, and he was honorably discharged from the Marine Corps on October 20, 1866. His whereabouts after leaving the Marine Corps are unknown, as is his date of death and place of burial.
His Medal of Honor Citation reads:
As a captain of a gun on board the U.S.S. RICHMOND during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram TENNESSEE in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks, Sergeant Miller fought his gun with skill and courage throughout the furious 2-hour battle which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram TENNESSEE and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.